Deep within the Achaedes Cluster, there spins an ancient star known as the Prime.  The Prime was once one of the centers of galactic commerce and culture, before mankind had even learned to tame fire.

Civilizations now long dead had gathered to share monuments and trade.

That all came to an end when the Bringer of the End devoured the golden planets of the Prime, leaving behind dead worlds in its wake as it left the system.

The vast majority of civilization had been completely erased from any of the worlds in the system.  One world survived the onslaught relatively unscathed.  Imperial records have labeled it Red.GP10291-IV, though reavers and privateers simply call it Prime 4.  Prime 4 had only been colonized and inhabited for a scant few hundred years when the Bringer of the End had passed through the system.

As such, its life-force did not register with the Star-God, and it was left untouched.   The relics of this ancient civilization and center of galactic trade have largely been destroyed, but Prime 4 has been found to contain a rare glimpse into the life of the people that once lived in this system.

These relics have become hot commodities and have attracted the attention of many ship captains looking to make a profit.  The relics also shape together a glimpse at the cause of the end of days of the Achaedes Cluster, and potentially a warning of what could soon be returning to Imperial held worlds…


Turn3Cycle2The target audience for this blog post is my gaming group.  What I’m writing about pertains to our campaigns, though can be applied outside as well.

A few years ago I wrote a series of articles for Bell of Lost Souls that explained what exactly narrative play is.  That series starts off here:

It generated a lot of conversation on BOLS, and highlighted that gamers and what makes them happy are very different.  Sometimes explosively so.  This is why before any campaign that I run, I make it a point to establish from the beginning that this is a Narrative Campaign.

What does that mean?

Pointedly, it means that its not fair.

Tournaments and leagues, and often pick up games are created and designed to be fair.  That is, the forces are symmetrical and the scenario is sterile so that the only thing the players have to play against are each other.

That has been the cultural default for wargaming since the mid 90s, so over twenty years now it has been ingrained and built up that all games should be set up like this.

Narrative Gaming takes that concept and spins it on its head.  The tales of battles often feature asymmetrical battles and environments that are just as deadly to the armies as much as the enemy are.

The bottom line of narrative gaming is that not all games are going to be fair.  There will be some games that are pretty even sure!  However, not all games will be like this.

Narrative gaming is not for everyone, and there’s nothing wrong with someone that wants and needs absolute balance and fairness at all times.  Thats what tournaments and leagues are for, and as its the cultural default, players should have no problem finding these to join because they are literally everywhere.

Campaign Days, Narrative Scenarios, and What You Can Expect
Campaign days feature a day out of the month when we can all get together as one group and play a game together.  It is one of the pinnacles of the campaigns that I like to organize and is why I have them always on the last saturday of every month, so that players can plan accordingly.

Any campaign that I run will largely feature narrative type scenarios.  A narrative scenario can be fair, or it can give certain sides bonuses for playing well that month, or simply through where the battle is located.

Typically in every event that I have run over the past almost twenty years, there will be a campaign day event that ruffles someone’s feathers.  I have a long list of tirades, rants, rage quits, and exodus because a scenario wasn’t fair.

Even after talking about how narrative scenarios won’t always be fair.

The most explosive of these was the Lustria fantasy campaign.  Jungle fighting meant that forests once again blocked line of sight, and quicksand could swallow knight units up easily.

This ran counter to internet-meta where gunlines had laser guided cannons that could shoot across the table and where you min/maxed high armor saves, so even after this was knowingly stated there were a couple of players that were personally offended by these rules and went on a large scale tirade about how it screwed them over.

Despite this, the Lustria campaign was also one of the most successful campaigns that I have ever been a part of.

Now at this time, this is where I say… narrative campaigns are not for everyone.  Narrative campaigns are to me a time to play in places you don’t normally play in campaigns and pickup games.    Narrative games are a time to play with models you don’t normally play because they don’t adhere to the internet-meta in standard tournament scenarios, but could shine in narrative scenarios.

Case in point… if you’re fighting in a jungle you don’t max out on cannons and knights.  Jungle fighting is not for those things.

The Lustria campaign was just one of those examples.  I can pull several, but I will not because they all share the same point:  narrative games are a time to play to the story and sometimes the story is not going to be kind to you.

Aqshy, the Hellish Heat, and Exhaustion Screws Me Over
The Aqshy campaign day time of war was pulled from a scenario that warhammer world ran.  It definitely made players think about how to overcome it, and there were ways to overcome it, but those ways were not how you traditionally play a game of warhammer.

When your army is falling all around you to the elements, and points are on the line as is reclaiming an artefact, that means you have to play aggressive and you can’t park in a corner and play a conservative ranged game.   You have to move forward, grab that artefact and score as many points as you can before your men fall over.

There are plenty of tales of this kind of battle in many books…where two armies clash in a hellish landscape and in the end as the smoke rises a lone hero staggers out clutching the prize.

I’ve said it once before and will say it again… the winner of the Sword in Azyr Empires will be the player that learns how to build an empire, and learns how to overcome obstacles.  It will take more than doing spreadsheet math on statistics and knowing that every scenario will be sterile and not offensive to your force.  Regardless, giving it your best effort will often reward you.

Case in point was Alex and his skaven fighting in a scenario that did not favor his low bravery rats, but he ended up being a failed exhaustion check away from taking 2nd place at that table.  And the failed exhaustion check was MY chariot failing it and dying, thus robbing him of the points that would have carried him up.

Campaign Days are one battle in a series of many.  Not every campaign day will favor you and not every campaign day will be an uphill battle for you either.  In five months there will be somewhere near twenty games you can play.  One campaign game that did not favor your army is not going to kill a player from being able to claim the final prize, just like winning a campaign day is not going to guarantee any player from claiming the final prize.

The campaign system is designed so that there is no way for one person to just run away with it easily.  The higher you are, the harder things can get.

Its Not Fair, Sportsmanship, Rules Arguments
So we know its not fair always, its not always going to be fair, and campaign days are going to be scenarios where the environment can be just as devastating as your opponent.  Expect that.  The reason that the scenarios are not given out ahead of time is because min/maxing the scenario is something that I am trying to minimize.  You are being tested on your ability to react and adapt as much as you are tested on being able to spreadsheet out your statlines and max out efficiency.

This is where tournaments and leagues differ from narrative games, and to reiterate – Narrative Games and Campaigns are not for everyone and there is nothing wrong with that.   However, if you are a player that demands perfect symmetry and balance and sterile scenarios, recognize that and stick with tournament gaming or other events that will cater to that.  Most of the campaigns that I run are not going to fall into that category.  There are plenty of other events that are purely competitive and all about symmetrical gaming, I like doing events that are different and offer a different side of wargaming (a side that I began with in the 80s before tournaments became a huge thing)

In terms of sportsmanship, during a game where points are on the line it is expected that you will finish out your game.  You can’t just get up and walk away to deny people points.  Personal conduct is the most important aspect of any game, and all of us to a person are expected to hold ourselves at the highest level of sportsmanship and conduct.  It is understandable that sometimes you lose your cool when bad things pile up, but it is all of our responsibilities to make sure that we keep ourselves in check.

If you are having a rules argument with someone, simply ask me during the day for an interpretation and we will have it resolved in a few moments and we can discuss it later.

If you have any questions on narrative gaming, or what to expect… please feel free to contact me.


The Coming of tor-Caedis

History remembers the victor, and this history is written of the Khorne warlord Tor-Caedis.

The first real battle saw him invade an aelven forest set amidst the Trees of Woe within Aqshy.  This burning forest was home to dark blackened trunks that dropped bits of flame, which glowed afire in the half light of the realm.

The Scenario was Reclaim the Fallen.  The current ruler of the Ashlands, the chaos lord Gysh the Iron, had led a raiding party into the forest, and to a man they were slaughtered by the aelven troops defending their land.

The body of Gysh the Iron was to be recovered at all costs and not lost to the enemy.

The scenario saw Tor-Caedis lead a small skirmishing band through the forest to recover the body.  He would have five turns to locate the body in one of three areas (whenever a friendly model would come within 3” of the token, on a 5+ that was the body).  For every of Tor Caedis’s men that was within 3” of the true body, he would earn a point.  He needed six points to win the scenario.  For every aelf within 3” of the body, he would lose a point.

The scenario lasted 5 sure turns and on a 4+ would go one more turn.

Tor Caedis and his Retinue – 13 Azyr Points

  • Tor Caedis (free) – no upgrades at all (first game) so very green and not even a command ability to his name
  • 10 Blood Reavers led by the chieftain Wreck-Gar the Mangled
  • 10 Blood Warriors led by the warrior Jimm Hellwig, the most ultimate of Khorne’s warriors
  • 3 Wrathmongers
  • 1 Khorograth


Princess Oriana and the Aelven Defenders of the Trees of Woe – 12 Azyr Points

  • Oriana, a high elf Princess (free) – no upgrades at all
  • 1 Frost Phoenix
  • 10 White Lions

The battlefield was set from the perspective of the Khorne warband.  The fallen Chaos lord was located either on the chaos altar (center), the jungle stand to the northwest of that, or under a large tree to the far left (out of picture)


The khorne bloodbound deployed first.  To achieve build points, both sides chose a secondary objective from the Azyr Empires list.  Chaos chose the “Slay their champions” objective, which would give 2 build points if their elite white lion unit could be slain.  The aelves chose the “slay their general” objective, aiming to put an end to the short career of Tor-Caedis.


Secondary and Tertiary Objectives
Three tertiary objectives were rolled.  For chaos, they received the Slay the General objective (worth D3 build points), and had to hold objective #4 and #6 for at least a turn.  Objective six was far to the east, and so the reavers were deployed there to take that objective, for their combat ability was lacking without boosts.

Objective four was in the heart of the aelven deployment zone, so should have been an easy one for the chaos side to achieve as they would push forward.

The aelves generated “Win the game”, “Hold objective #2, but this is worth D3 build points”, and the General must survive.

Build points are a crucial part of Azyr Empires, as they help you progress your heroes and your territories even if you do not win the game.  (winning the game helps you obtain new territory which gives you campaign points, and is how you win the campaign)

As noted above, the reavers were put on the eastern part of the deployment as they would likely not see combat in this game, and that was fine because without buffers in the force they would not work very well… however as an objective taker they were perfect.

The left flank would be dominated by the wrath mongers and the khorgorath, who would be aiming right for one of the tokens that could be the fallen chaos lord.

Tor-Caedis and his Blood Warriors would march up the middle.

The trick would be to not get tied up by the white lions and stay mobile and react to wherever the general’s body was.

The aelf force was composed of elites and had a very low model count, so the numbers advantage was definitely in chaos’ favor… but this type of scenario does not care for how much you kill – its easy to get out of position and not make it to the fallen body objective in time if not careful!


The Bloodbound quickly took the center of the table while the reavers rushed to take the tertiary objective.  Over on the west, the phoenix as predicted moved to intercept the korgorath, which let the wrath mongers try to identify the token and see if it was the chaos lord.


Sure enough it was!  This was both a good thing (because we found out where the body was right away) but a bad thing (2/3 of my army was way out of position).  Fortunately with the game being early, and the aelves having no missile weapons, I would have time to correct my course!

The next few turns were given to the white lions and their princess charging the blood warriors on the altar to try to hold them up.  White Lions can be quite deadly, and a bad battleshock phase could see the Blood Warriors rushed off of the altar and off the table in no time.

Their axes swinging, they brought down three entire blood warriors (that’s six wounds) but managed to also lose half of their number in return.

The princess and chaos chieftain mixed it up in the center of the table, and with time running low, the Blood Warriors disengaged with a retreat action to move toward the body.

The phoenix put a hurting on the khorgorath, killing the creature before succumbing to the wrathmongers.


With the princess and the chaos chieftain battling atop the skull altar, the end of turn 5 came.  If the dice roll to see if turn 6 failed, the aelves would win this one.

It was not to be however.  With a mighty “6” showing up on the dice to continue, the blood warriors were able to reach the body of their chaos lord and give enough points for khorne to win this day.


Both general’s still survived, so the aelf player received a build point for achieving that objective.

The white lion unit did indeed die, giving the khorne player +2 build points, and the reavers contributed with another build point for holding objective 6.

With the body of their fallen lord recovered, Tor expanded his empire by bringing in an Azyr Mountainous territory, with which a settlement was built and unlocked a hero slot.

Still in the middle of the pack, an initial win is something that can be built on, and thus the champion Tor’s first battle ended…

The many strategies of Azyr Empire are … do you go for the win or do you go for build points if you have to choose between both?

With the new settlement built on the mountain territory, I gain a hero slot which will be used to bring in a bloodsecrator and boost my reavers with him (not only do all khorne units gain a melee attack if he plants his standard, but reavers get an additional attack from just being near a totem)

Now the question is… do I push for summoning some demons?  How will I build on my empire next?

It appears some duardin are to be challenged next…

Badab Campaign Turn 3 Cycle 3

Posted: March 15, 2015 in Uncategorized


Past Results

Sacristan was once again a bloody draw, with ruin winning two and the imperials winning two.
Piety was a loss for the imperials, and the element was dropped to 1000 pts
BFG Svngraad insertion was a victory for the garrison
BFG Svngraad ruin vs secessionist battle was a victory for the secessionists
BFG Sacristan was not played and the roll off went to the imperials, pushing the orks back to Bellephron’s Fall

Current Orders

RUIN – Fleet V moves from Bell. Fall to Sacristan
RUIN – Fleet I with Army B moves from Calah to Corcrya but loses 500 points of its element to the warp
RUIN – Army “A” continues the fight on Magog
RUIN – Fleet IV repairs at Bell. Fall and repairs a level
RUIN – Fleet II repairs at Kymra and fixes one level
RUIN – Army “E” engages imperials on Sacristan

Fleet II and IV reorganize
Army “F” claims Optera
Fleet III moves from Optera to kyro
Fleet VI moves to Corcrya
Fleet V patrols Archae
Fleet I attempts insertion of Army “D” onto Svngraad

Fleet II goes on patrol and engages RUIN fleet V
Fleet IV supports Fleet II
Fleet V repairs at Grief
Fleet III patrols at Tranquility
Army “E” moves from Piety to endymion
Fleet I moves to Magog

Current Battles
40k – Battle of Magog – 2k vs 2k RUIN vs Preferably Daemons.  Both have lords of war available
40k – Sacristan – 2k ruin vs 2k imperials with defender bonus.  Ruin has lord of war and special characters.  imperials have special characters.

BFG – planetary insertion on svngraad 2000 points of secessionists vs 2000 points of imperial garrison.  Use the bonuses given in the scenario.  Svngraad has no planetary bonuses in addition to.

BFG – Sacristan – 2k orks vs 1750 imperials

Badab Campaign Turn 3 Cycle 2

Posted: March 8, 2015 in 40k, Badab War


Past Results

Larsa – secessionists take Larsa with a victory
Sacristan – two ruin victories over no imperial victories keep Sacristan in the hands of the Ruin
Rook – neutral victory denies the imperials
Magog – Ruin victory puts them one step closer to owning the demon world
Dark Angels Quest chain – Dark Angels failed to gather intel
BFG Svngraad – secessionists claim victory and the imperial fleet flees to Galen
BFG Belefron’s Fall – Ruin wins via a roll off

Current Orders

Imperials – Army B continues the Sacristan war
Ruin – Fleet IV moves to Sacristan
Secessionists – Fleet III and element F move to Optera

Imperials – Fleet II goes on patrol and engages the ork fleet IV at Sacristan
Ruin – Fleet III moves to Sacristan but is destroyed in warp storms

Turn3Cycle2Secessionists – element “C” moves to Optera

Imperials – Fleet IV supports Fleet II at sacristan
Ruin – element “A” at Magog does battle to claim the world
Secessionists – Fleet IV begins planetary insertion on Svngraad

Imperials – Element “E” on Piety continues its quest chain
Ruin – Element E on Sacristan fights loyalist element “B”
Secessionists – Fleet V patrols Archae

imperials – Fleet V at Galen moves to Grief
Ruin – Fleet II moves to Svngraad but loses 500 points
Secessionists – I patrols svngraad and engages ork fleet II moving in

Imperials – “F” at rook withdraws with fleet I to Bloody Bones
Ruin – Fleet V Repairs at B. Fall
Secessionists – Fleet IV patrols Angstrom

Imperials – III patrols Tranquility
Ruin – “F” moves to Calah
Secessionists – II supports planetary insertion at Svngraad

Current Cycle Battles

40k – Sacristan – imperials vs ruin (2000 pts imperial with special character vs 2000 pts ruin with lord of war and spec character)

40k – Magog – ruin vs neutrals (preferably demonic forces) – 2000 pts ruin with lord of war and special character vs 2000 pts neutral with lord of war

40k – Piety – APOCALYPSE – imperials (no lord of war) vs the restless dead of piety (with tzeentch lord of change gargantuan – city table)

BFG – Sacristan – 2000 pts of ruin vs 1750 pts of imperials

BFG – Svngraad – 2250 pts of secessionists vs 2000 pts garrison fleet.  Svngraad has no planetary bonuses this turn due to no food reaching it in resource phase.

BFG – Svngraad – 2000 pts secessionists vs 1500 pts of ruin


Resource time!  Current score:
Ruin & Secessionists 21 victory points, Imperials with 15
Ruin & Secessionists 105 resource points, Imperials with 75

Past Battles
Angstrom 2-2 draw – secessionists keep Angstrom
Sacristan – 2-1 Ruin – Ruin keeps the planet
Larsa – 1-0 Secessionists – one more game and they own Larsa
BFG battle on Rook – imperial insertion successful
BFG Battle – Bellephrons Fall – imperials vs Ruin – imperial fleet wins and knocks a ruin fleet to Gygnax

Secessionists successfully pulled the Prison Colony of Kyro into their fold, with 4 victory points and 20 resource points added to their total (putting them in the lead)


Turn 3 Orders

Turn 1
Secssionists – move element “A” to angstrom but lose 1000 points of 2000 to warp storms!
Imperials – Fleet 1 moves from sacristan to B. Fall
Ruin – recon the ork world Calah

Turn 2
Secessionists – Army C continues to prosecute Larsa
Imperials – Army B prosecutes Sacristan
Ruin – Fleet V moves from Gygax to B. Fall, loses 500 points and 1500 remain

Turn 3
Secessionists – Army “F” moves to Larsa
Imperials – Element “E” moves to Piety
Ruin – Element “A” prosecutes Magog

Turn 4
Secessionists – Fleet IV and Army D move to Svngraad
Imperials – Fleet V and Army A on Galen move to Svngraad
Ruin – Fleet IV attacks imperial fleet I at B. Fall

Turn 5
Secessionists – Fleet V patrols Archae
Imperials – Fleet IV supports Fleet II on B. Fall
Ruin – Fleet III supports Fleet IV on B. Fall

Turn 6
Secessionists – Fleet VI patrols
Imperials – Element “G” moves to piety but is destroyed in the warp

Turn 7
Secessionists – Fleet 3 patrols Larsa


Current Battles
BFG – Svngraad – 2000 points of imperials vs 2000 points of secessionists (with battleship)
BFG – B. Fall – 2,250 points of imperials vs 2,250 points of ruin (with battleship)

40k – Rook – 2000 points with lord of war of demonically possessed colonists vs 1500 points of loyalists with 100 pts of fortifications.

40k – 2000 points of secessionists vs 500 pts of garrison on Larsa (fighting the scenario needing 500 points to win the game on Larsa)

40k – Sacristan – 2000 points of imperials with special characters vs 2000 points of ruin with lord of war and special characters

40k – MAGOG – APOCALYPSE BATTLE!!!!  Ruin vs Demonic Host!!

40k – Dark Angels quest chain – Hunting the Fallen!
1500 points – random game length – must be played between a Dark Angels player and a secessionist player.

Secessionist player – each unit champion is an objective.  Killing the unit champion earns the dark angels player a point.  Keeping it alive by the end of the game earns the secessionist a point.

If the secessionist warlord is defeated in assault phase it is worth 5 points.  If the secessionist warlord is killed via shooting it is worth 1 point to the dark angels.  If the secessionist warlord survives, it is worth 5 points to the secessionist player.

Secondary objectives:  None.  The dark angels are here to capture the enemy warlord and kill his officers.


Last week I wrote a little forum post that turned into an article asking “what makes 7th edition 40k LESS COMPETITIVE than 5th edition 40k”.  The answers that were posted back and the conversation that followed highlighted a very important piece of information that probably should have been resolved first.  The definition “competitive gaming” had many different definitions to many different people; no wonder there is such heated discussion on the topic!

I don’t think that this article is going to be the ultimate definition of what Competitive Gaming is, but I am going to give my opinion on what Competitive Gaming is and will also touch on why I feel that Warhammer 40,000 has NEVER been a competitive game in any of its editions.

To the first topic, Competitive Gaming is to me a game played between people where the skillset of the players are compared against and the player with the most skill should come out on top.  This can be in anything, be it sports like football, soccer, or games like chess.

Competitive Gaming should primarily be resolved based on the skill of the player(s) involved and should be against players of roughly equal caliber.

For example, the game of football can be played by anyone.  However, there is a large difference between a high school foot ball team, a college football team, and a professional football team.  We expect that these teams be matched up against people in their same class or caliber.

Fighting sports such as boxing or mixed martial arts, or even wrestling, pair people up in weight classes, because there is nothing LESS competitive than setting a heavy weight fighter up against a 130 lb fighter.

Competitive players also have to deal with random elements in the form of weather, sporting venues, and things of that nature.  Not only must they deal with them, they must overcome them.

Competitive Gaming ultimately seeks to determine who is the better overall player.

Why I feel 40k has never been a competitive game has nothing to do with its core rules.  The things many people who claim to be competitive talk about hating, I don’t see as making any more or less “competitive”.  Random charges, random powers, etc don’t make a game less competitive, they enforce a different set of skills and tactics that must be employed.

However, the lack of game balance between factions DOES make a game less competitive, and Warhammer 40k and Warhammer Fantasy have never had any real balance in any of the editions, which is to me why neither game is competitive nor has it ever been.

When competing in warhammer, players will actively seek to have their army list do as much of the heavy lifting as possible.  In sports terms, it is the same as being handed a professional football team, being able to freely obtain all of the super star players in the league, and then also be given the caveat that one can play teams at the high school or college level, and if the weather is not preferable one has the power to change the weather so that conditions are always perfect.

As a fighter, it would be like getting to be the heavy weight fighter and taking on opponents in weight classes far below the one assigned.

None of these scenarios to me is competitive.  I’d even go so far as to say that actively engaging in these types of contests is NON-COMPETITIVE because the skill of the player is secondary to how well the deck can be stacked.  While that may be fine in a deck game like Magic: The Gathering – in a game of war where one expects tactics and strategies to be tested this falls very very short.

To me – for 40k to be truly a competitive game, the balance in all of the factions needs seriously overhauled.  Barring that, a solid comp system needs put in place to put more builds in viable standings.

Second, for 40k to be truly a competitive game, tournaments should deviate from every table being the same and having the same scraps of terrain on them.  This enforces certain build types.  A truly good player should be tested on different types of boards, with different types of terrain and cover available.  Start showcasing tournaments where some tables are like city scapes where line of sight is not freely given to every model on the table, and you’ll start to see lists shifting to accommodate the fact that you won’t always get to play on planet bowling ball and do nothing but shoot.

Third – for 40k to truly be a competitive game, the designers need to lessen or eliminate the ROCK/PAPER/SCISSORS aspect of the game.  This has always existed, from the time I started playing in third edition, to today.

My two primary tournament 40k armies were starcannon spam eldar and leafblower Imperial Guard.

A little history:  my first army was Dark Angels.  After three months of playing the game I played in my first tournament and got curb stomped bad.  The winner of that event was a star cannon spam eldar player, who said something to me to this very day that I will never forget, even nearly twenty years later.  He said “eldar are a tough army to play properly and only veteran players can really get a hang of it”.

I didn’t understand that, since he tabled me in three turns by rolling a lot of dice with weapons I got no save against.  So I built the same army.  The next tournament I attended, about six months into the hobby, I won my first tournament by tabling two blood angels players and a space wolf player.

That really summarizes competitive 40k to me.  I am not a great player.  When you kick my crutches out from under me, I win as much as I lose, and I certainly would never have been able to win a tournament without a list that took advantage of no cover, and a meta which was dominated by blood angels players with a smattering of space wolf players.

That next year and a half I played in over one hundred competitive games.  I lost twice:  once to an ork player and once to a tyranid player.  I mistakingly thought that I was a great 40k player because my lists were busted and few played my hard counter (a hoard army).

The thing was, I was the 270 lb heavy weight fighter fighting 125 lb high school kids.  I was the New England Patriots playing football games against Springfield High.  There was nothing competitive about it.  When I tried playing lists that did not exploit whatever was broken at the time, I didn’t do nearly as well.  That to me again speaks volumes about competitive 40k.

It never has been competitive while the army rules are as imbalanced as they have always been and sadly has never really been a test of player skill or strategy so much as it has been a test with how good one is with rudimentary math and effective spreadsheet skills.